By Gabriel Reynolds
In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, renowned for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a inventive polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church heritage (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts off with an exam of the arguable thought that this polemic was once borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian staff. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is healthier understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic global. by way of interpreting the lifestyles and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate dating among sectarian controversy and the improvement of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.
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Additional info for A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: Abd al-Jabbar and the Critique of Christian Origins (Islamic History and Civilization)
Threat and the punishment in the afterlife (al-wa'd wa-l-wa'ìd ), 4. The intermediate position of the sinning believer (al-manzila bayna l-manzilatayn), and 5. Commanding the right and forbidding the wrong (al-amr bi-l-ma'rùf wa-l-nahì 'an al-munkar). Îiràr was apparently accused of violating God’s justice (#2) with his determinism, (for a just God would not punish a man for that which He preordained). These principles, however, were likely not formalized before Abù l-Hudhayl, and Îiràr died twenty-seven years earlier.
See also Schmidtke’s introduction to Zamakhsharì, al-Minhàj fì ußùl al-dìn, ed. S. Schmidtke (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1997). 11 Two monographs have been written on 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s theological thought: G. Hourani’s Islamic Rationalism: the Ethics of 'Abd al-Jabbàr and J. 13 Two general statements can be made on this topic at the outset. First: there is no separating the rise of the Mu'tazila and the rise of kalàm. As D. ”14 Second, Mu'tazilì writings are, even in the earliest extant sources, polemical.
The format of masà"il wa-ajwiba usually begins with an objection or explanation from a hypothetical opponent. First, the questioner responds to the opponent’s argument with a disjunction, two consequences of that argument from which the opponent must choose. The opponent’s choice will lead him to contradict himself, to see his argument reduced to inanity, or to face another disjunction. Ultimately, any path that the opponent takes will lead the unfortunate victim into a logical trap (sometimes after a long series of disjunctions).