By Charles R. Krahmalkov

This quantity contains the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It comprises examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to deliver to lifestyles the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that stressful and element reference of a given type of the verb is basically a functionality of syntax, now not morphology.

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Extra info for A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik)

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C. 1). c c ( ayin): Pharyngeal obstruent / 7 . No orthographic device was used to represent this phoneme in Latin-letter Punic nor is it entirely evident that the phoneme survived in late Punic, as witnessed by its non-representation in Poen. 944 fel fel (P'L "he did") and Poen. 945 liful lifxiil (LP'L "to do"). 4 PHV felu ("they made"). P: Bilabial simple stop /p/ in Phoenician and Punic. ], as may be ascertained from the word-play between Poen. "), Poen. 1025. However, one also finds in Punic the labiodental fricative realization \f] in all positions: Poen.

100 B . C . - A . D . 400. These materials are complemented by specimens of Punic and Neo-Punic in the form of Latin and Greek transcriptions and the few specimens of Phoenician, mosdy personal names, in Assyrian and Babylonian sources. In view of the difficult nature of the evidence, the following essay to provide a description of Phoenician-Punic phonology is perforce fragmented, incomplete and always problematic. A. The Consonants 1. The Articulation of the Consonants 9 ('aleph): Simple glottal stop / V at the beginning of a syllable: 5LP alp ("ox") but quiescent in syllable-final position, with resultant lengthening and stress-lengthening of the vowel: NPu Poen.

DBRM "they say"). The singular is attested as duber dubenn Punic (Poen. 944, 946) and dubyr dubxr in Neo-Punic (Poen. 936). It is possible that full reduction of the vowel in the active participle was morphophonemic, for such is the case in the plural active participle of verba Illgem. 3 GRR gurer. Such reduction is characteristic of verba Illgem. g. 'LL calel ("enters") but plural 'LLYN 'allin. 4a-6. Propretonic: In the Qal infinitive Attested in Punic/Neo-Punic Poen. 945, 935 liful liful < lifaol (LP'L "to do") and Punic Poen.

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