By Leonard Unthank Salkield (auth.), Maurice J. Cahalan (eds.)

Whether the Phoenicians and t he within the south-west of the Iberian Carthaginians ever really labored Peninsula there's a significant pyritic the mines , or have been simply investors, is mineral ised quarter, referred to as the now not convinced , yet after 205 BC, while Andevallo, extending from close to they defeated the Carthagi nians, the Seville to south of Lisbon, a space Romans introduced their very own males expert a few one hundred fifty kilometres lengthy and 30 in mining and metallurgy. kilometres large. The Romans occupied many of the The Rio Tinta Mines , that are the Iberian Peninsula for six hundred years , greatest of this "pyrites belt" , lie until eventually approximately 425 advert - the latest within the quarter often called Andalusia, Roman cash chanced on at Rio Tinto convey a few ninety kilometres north-west of the pinnacle of Honorius who was once emperor Seville and seventy five kilometres north-east from 395 to 423 advert. Mining needs to of Huelv8 . they've got a really lengthy have declined with the invasion of historical past, courting again to pre-Iberian Barbarians within the fifth century and the days; then got here the Iberians , a race next entr y of the Visigoths who of North African starting place (Turdetarian have been finally absorbed into the and Tartessian) , the Phoenicians , the folk of Spain. In 711 advert the Carthaginians , the Romans , the Moors, Moors invaded the Peninsula from the Spaniards and the British. It North Africa.

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Extra info for A technical history of the Rio Tinto mines: some notes on exploitation from pre-Phoenician times to the 1950s

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The cementation or precipitating tanks were cleaned out after having been fi l led three or four times , when the coating of copper on the pig iron was thick enough to be removed by hand or pick . The tanks were then emptied, all the pig iron with copper attac hed removed and the fine precipitate on the tank bottoms was shovelled out. Each uni t of copper precipitated consumed about 2. 2 units of pig iron . Rua Figueroa gives analyses of two precipitates ; the first removed from pig iron, the second collected as sludge from ceme ntation tank bottoms , as follows : 65 .

Copper produced by cementation in this way was more pure than that obtained by cementation from mine drainage wa t er and was separately refined; the latter , known as "cascaria de la caneria!! and containing significant arsenic, was refined in the reverberatory furnace with black copper. Around 1841 , a D Felipe Prieto visited the mines and saw the roasting of the cupreous pyrites for the smelter - he claimed he knew a process which could recover copper from the l ow copper content pyrites then being discarded .

Electrochemical decomposition!! in 1834. - 32 - The Treasury agreed to Cerda taking half the resid ual mined ore after the obligation to supply the Planes Company had been met and to leasing the Desamparados smelter. It is thought that Cerda took delivery of ore near the Roman adit of San Pedro and, to save transport , roasted it in the same area , very near the village, Rio Tinto pueblo. The location of his Fabrica de Cerda is sho~n on the 1878 plan. Cerda's story is told in some detail by David Avery(l); his operations ceased in 1858 when it was recognised that they were similar to those of the Planes Company.

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