By Inger Lassen
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Extra info for Accessibility and Acceptability in Technical Manuals: A Survey of Style and Grammatical Metaphor (Document Design Companion Series, V. 4)
This may be done by means of the transitivity tests shown in Tables 6 and 7. The transitivity tests show tension between diŸerent semantic categories in the analysis of the incongruent realization (Table 6) where certain categories have replaced or represented others. It is this tension that Halliday (1999) has referred to as semantic junction, a notion that is at the root of grammatical metaphor. g. Process and Participant. In addition to the tests already mentioned, Ravelli (1985: 63–65) lists two devices for determining whether a realization is congruent, viz derivation and agnation respectively.
Propositions and Proposals both involve the Mood system as shown in Halliday (1994: 357). A full account of the modality system is, however, beyond the scope of this book and besides not particularly relevant to the language used in technical manuals. But the notions of probability, usuality, obligation and inclination are at the root of the conªguration of metaphors of modality — a concept that we shall examine below. (For a more exhaustive account of modality, see Halliday 1994: 358–363 and Martin (1992).
There are two explanations of this decision. First, analysis can be simpliªed if an instance of grammatical metaphor is looked at from only one perspective. Secondly, the division into syntagmatic and paradigmatic orientations respectively will provide a clear framework for my further analyses. Let me therefore illustrate how a line of division may be drawn between syntagmatic and paradigmatic metaphors. If the tension created takes syntagmatic form, the conªguration may look as in Figure 1 with the congruent realization above and the incongruent realization below the horizontal line.