By P. Bernier

This edited paintings includes 8 huge, review-type contributions through prime scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited through the organisers of the foreign convention on technology and expertise of artificial Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the development of study some time past 20 years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sphere and assesses the clients for destiny learn.

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The first approach towards Sugimoto and Yoshino FeCI3 95 94 Wudl 1. Mg, Et20, reflux 2. Ni(dppp)CI2, anisol, 100~ 96 20 Yamamoto Ni(COD)2, P(Ph)3 Br-~~~Br DMF, 60~ - 80~ 97 Scheme 22 Chemical approach towards unsubstituted PT. 20 Years of "Synthetic Metals" R a) 45 Dehalogenation Polymerization X ' ~ X x= Br, I 98 R b) C l H g ~ H g C l N i] cat. Demercuration polymerization Cu, PdCI2 pyridine, A 99 r R Sugimoto FeCI3 100 R Hotta d) FeCI3or AICI3 Y = CI, Br 101 Scheme 23 Synthesisof poly-(3-alkylthiophene)s (PAT).

Primarily in the synthesis of the asymmetric organometallic intermediate 105, whereby highly reactive Riecke zinc was used to generate a mixture of isomers, which were regioselectively polymerized by the use of a sterically demanding nickel catalyst. The success of generating an almost 100% regioregular HT-HT coupled PAT depends thereby on the catalyst selectivity; using a catalyst system with sterically less demanding ligands like tetrakistrisphenylenepalladium(0) leads to regioirregular PATs.

Advances in Synthetic Metals 44 electrochem. Oxid. e 0 92 93 chemical Aromat. -2H* -2 H § -e e 20 Scheme 21 Electrochemical synthesis of polythiophene (PT). transistors. Nickel-catalyzed polycondensation-dehalogenation of 2,5-dihalogenothiophene 96 and 97 provides another route to polythiophene (see scheme 22) [136]. The polymers obained by this method are often referred to as "high quality PTs" because of their high purity and good physical properties, but due to the lack of solubilizing groups these polymers are insoluble and therefore difficult to process.

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