By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

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Moreover, upon setting T = T 1 in Eq. 65), we get where again the first and second terms represent, respectively, the top surface contribution (attenuated to the bottom) and the internal atmospheric contribution. Detailed applications of these two equations associated with infrared transfer and multiple scattering will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 6. 2 A meteorological satellite circles the earth at a height h above the earth's surface. 3 Express the Planck function in the wavelength and wave number domains from that in the frequency domain.

Since the collision may be considered to be instantaneous, one may assume v = va + ~ v , 18 1 Fundamentalsof Radiation that the principal effect of the collision is to destroy the phase coherence of the emitted wave train. That is to say, that after the collision the molecule starts emitting with another phase and the new phases are now randomly distributed. From general statistical principles, the time between collisions is distributed according to Poisson's law that the probability a collision occurs between t and t + dt is e- t / t o , where to is the mean time between collisions.

Its main ingredients are primordial hydrogen and helium plus a small amount of heavier elements such as iron, silicon, neon, and carbon. Hydrogen makes up about 75% of the mass, while the remaining 25% or so is helium. The temperature of the sun decreases from a central value of about 5 x 106°K to about 5800 at the surface. The density within the sun falls off very rapidly with increasing distance from the center. The central density is about 150 g em - 3, and at the surface, it is about 10- 7 g em -3.

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