By Ralph Mark Rosen, Ineke Sluiter

An exam of a valuable thought within the self-definition of any Greek-speaking male: "Andreia", the inspiration of braveness and manliness. via a mix of lexical or semantic and conceptual reports the discourse of manliness and its position within the development of social order is explored.

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Extra resources for Andreia: Studies in Manliness and Courage in Classical Antiquity

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33 In a simi­ lar passage, Apollo enjoins Aeneas to fight with the following words (Il. 34 …w dØ ‡don én°raw êllouw kãrte˝ te sy°ne˝ te pepoiyÒtaw ±nor°˙ te plÆye˝ te sfet°rƒ, ka‹ Íperd°a d∞mon ¶xontaw: In a final example, Odysseus explains the fighting prowess of his genos to Telemachus: “for always before we have excelled in strength and masculinity over all the earth” (o„ tÚ pãrow per/élkª tÉ ±nor°˙ te kekãsmeya pçsan §pÉ a‰an, Od. 508–9). Translated loosely as ‘masculinity’ in these examples, ±nor°h manifests itself as an exter­ nally recognized attribute or action that shares the semantic field of alkê, sthenos, and kartos.

See also, Allison 1997, 1–18. 8 Allison 1997, xi; cf. 7. See also, Sluiter 1997, 177. ROSEN/F3/25-58 10/1/02 2:11 PM Page 28   28 it demonstrates how the relationship between abstract terms and their referents is an important feature of Athenian political rhetoric. And second, it points to the recognition value of andreia (among other terms) as a virtue or ethical term whose meaning is contested in the fifth century. 4): In making a judgment, they [the partisans in stasis] changed the val­ ues that words customarily gave to deeds.

West, ‘The Rise of the Greek Epic’, JHS 108 (1988) 166. ROSEN/F3/25-58 10/1/02 2:11 PM Page 37        37 be understood as “the product of cultural processes congruent with early state-formation, in which heroic action and archaizing values are at once glorified and displaced onto a rhetorical plane, in order to make way for institutions and values more appropriate to new forms of sociocultural organization” (261). Winter’s conclusions help contextualize the semantic history of manliness in terms of this dis­ placement.

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