By Michael Gagarin, Douglas M. MacDowell

Classical oratory is a useful source for the learn of old Greek lifestyles and tradition. The speeches provide facts on Greek ethical perspectives, social and financial stipulations, political and social ideology, and different elements of Athenian tradition which have been principally overlooked: girls and kin existence, slavery, and faith, to call only a few.

This quantity comprises the works of the 2 earliest surviving orators, Antiphon and Andocides. Antiphon (ca. 480-411) was once a number one Athenian highbrow and writer of the career of logography ("speech writing"), whose specified curiosity used to be legislations and justice. His six surviving works all trouble murder situations. Andocides (ca. 440-390) was once fascinated about spiritual scandals—the mutilation of the Herms (busts of Hermes) and the revelation of the Eleusinian Mysteries—on the eve of the fateful Athenian excursion to Sicily in 415. His speeches are a safeguard opposed to fees when it comes to these events.

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3 [1] He wrongs misfortune when he tries to use her to mask his crimes and remove his pollution. But he deserves no pity from you; he brought disaster on the unwilling victim but willingly got himself into this danger. In my earlier speech I showed that he killed the man; I will now try to refute the claims he made in his defense. [2] If the killers had seen others approaching and had fled, leaving the victims there without removing their cloaks, then those who dis- s Previous service to the city is often mentioned in court.

6 But many of these alleged discrepancies can be explained if we keep in mind that these works were probably intended to be read, studied, and discussed by others. If genuine, they are probably early works of Antiphon, perhaps as early as the 440s, and thus among the earliest examples we have of Attic prose, which soon superseded Ionic prose as the medium of intellectual communication throughout the Greek world. Their influence on the style of Thucydides, the first great master of Attic prose, is evident.

By setting the issue in terms of mistake {hamartia) and by comparing the two parties' 3. S E C O N D T E T R A L O G Y 3I actions to those of others at the scene, Antiphon comes close to a modern concept of negligence in terms of a "reasonable man" standard of behavior. We could also see the issue as the legal and moral responsibility for an act of which a person is (to use modern terms) a necessary but not a sufficient cause (cf. 1 —5). Athenian law almost certainly did not lay down precise guidelines for such situations, and it is unclear what conclusions jurors would reach if this were a real case.

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