By Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)

A huge variety of accomplished guides has been dedicated to the Antarctic, to its plant and animal lifestyles. it truly is for that reason fairly effortless to familiarize oneself with the present nation of Antarctic study. not anything similar is out there for the Arctic. The heterogeneity and richness of the northern polar areas appear to have discouraged any try at a synthethic process. This e-book has advanced from an try and summarize the result of 15 years of ecological and physiological learn paintings within the Arctic - totally on Spitsbergen. the need of evaluating our effects and the ecological stipulations of Spitsbergen with different arctic areas grew right into a full-sized booklet on arctic animal ecology. it isn't intended as an exhaustive survey ofthe proper literature. as an alternative i've got attempted to teach how heavily many of the fields of analysis are interwoven, what number questions will be solved if basically detect is taken of fellow scientists and their effects, and what kind of arctic animals have in universal. This ebook do not have been attainable with out the helpfulness of many colleagues. principally I may still prefer to point out Professor Ronning and Professor Solem of Trondheim collage (Norway), Professor Arnthor Gardasson of Reykjavik collage (Iceland), Dr. NettIeship, Dr. Oliver and Dr. Ryder of Canada and Professor West of Fairbanks collage (Alaska, USA).

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3. A further possibility would be to raise the concentration of the enzyme, but this is also very costly in terms of energy. 4. Energy ( = food) is not available in unlimited quantities, apart from which the very act of finding more food also consumes energy. 5. g. growth), and usually at the cost of plasticity with respect to environmental factors (the organisms tolerate only a very narrow temperature range and are highly sensitive to changes in the chemical make-up of their surroundings). For a summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in temperature compensation see Behrisch in Wieser, 1973; Hoffmann, 1976-78; Hochachka and Somero, 1973.

The most spectacular evidence for this is the existence of refrigerators and deep-freezers, which would be useless if micro-organisms had been able to adapt their speed of reproduction to the temperatures prevailing inside them. There would have been time enough in the course of evolution for such micro-organisms to have adapted in the cold regions of the earth, which have been in existence ever since life became possible on our planet. Apparently the absolute limits for the existence of life are reached at such temperatures.

Temperature Conditions in the Arctic 33 Fig. 31. Growth (in 4) of butterfly larvae (Laphygma) at various temperatures on different foods. - - - normal plant food; - - - a synthetic imitation of the above: ~ synthetic diet with no indigestible components such as cellulose. (After Schramm, 1972) % 1000 100 10 ! 10 13 20 We thus have an explanation for the almost complete absence of herbivorous insects in the Arctic and their restriction to continental regions with plenty of sunshine (Fig. 31). Other effects are probably involved which, however, still lack any physiological explanation.

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