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Additional info for Aristotle: On Interpretation (Medieval Philosophical Texts in Translation)

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But the Metaphysics makes the same point. Is this process not circular? It would be if we divorced the logical entirely from the realsecond intentions from first intentions. The logician shows that there is contingency on the basis of common experience, but he is not concerned to analyze the nature of contingency; the metaphysician proves that not everything that happens in the world has a per se cause, and that a sufficient cause, once posited, does not necessarily entail its effect. Both the logician and the metaphysician start from common knowledge, but the one examines the logical conditions of demonstration whereas the other examines directly the very nature of real contingency, to show in a distinct and definitive way the reason why there can be no science of the contingent.

The verbal explicitation of reason) and the enunciation. It is indeed true that in contrast to the Categories, the mode of exposition in the Peri Hermeneias is both more elementary and elaborate. It is elementary in the sense that it is confined to the essentials of the enunciation, also called the proposition; its elaboration is made manifest in the extensive analysis of the parts of the enunciation and the enunciation itself. which in modern logic are taken to be the most basic. In fact, what Aristotle has to say about the essential parts of an enunciation, the name and the verb, most modern logicians would consider foreign to pure logic.

The decadence of late Scholasticism can be traced to this failure: confused knowledge is taken for distinct because of its certitude and, consequently, the relevance and sufficiency of confused knowledge for logic is not realized. Little wonder, then, that logic should eventually degenerate into a pseudo-metaphysics. 16 Although on the one hand purely symbolic logic, sometimes called logistics, can be taught to the young like arithmeticunderstood as an art of computationAristotelian logic, on the other hand, is extremely difficult.

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