By LINDA WILSON-PAUWELS, PATRICIA A. STEWART, ELIZABETH J. AKESSON

Authored via a similar crew that created Cranial Nerves, this publication presents an easy-to-follow review of autonomic nerves. the 1st half describes their constitution and serve as. the second one half addresses autonomic keep watch over of person organ structures in a problem-based studying layout. all through, Autonomic Nerves describes afferent pathways, integrating constructions and mechanisms, efferent pathways, and the autonomic effectors. rules of autonomic neurotransmission also are mentioned.

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T h e insula lies deep to t h e e d g e s of t h e lateral fissure a n d is overlain b y t h e frontal, parietal, a n d temporal opercula (lids). The dorsal part of t h e insular cortex plays a major role in taste, whereas t h e ventral part functions as a somatotopically organized visceral sensorimotor area. Gastrointestinal sensory a n d motor neurons are located rostrally, cardiovascular neurons most caudally, a n d arterial chemoreceptor n e u r o n s in a n i n t e r m e d i a t e position.

Autonomic Sensory Components Visceral Sensory Pathways The two anatomic types of visceral sensory neurons a r e t h o s e that project t o t h e central nervous system a n d those that do not. Sensory Neurons that Project to the Central Nervous System Visceral afferent nerves that project t o t h e central nervous system are typical sensory neurons. Their nerve endings are free or encapsulated, a n d their cell bodies a r e pseudo-unipolar in s h a p e . They reside in t h e dorsal root ganglia of t h e spinal cord or in t h e sensory ganglia of t h e cranial nerves.

4-5 a n d 4-6). Its components are not universally a g r e e d u p o n , b u t t h e amygdala, hippocampus, d e n t a t e gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, a n d t h e septa1 area are included b y m o s t a u t h o r s . T h e r e g i o n s of t h e l i m b i c s y s t e m a r e e x t e n s i v e l y interconnected b y t h e pathways summarized in Fig. 4-6. The specific roles of different c o m p o n e n t s of t h e limbic s y s t e m in producing t h e a u t o n o m i c components of affective behavior a r e not well understood.

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