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Extra resources for Barrett&Grishan Biochemistry
Viewing the dissociation of strong electrolytes another way, we see that the ions formed show little affinity for one another. For example, in HCl in water, ClϪ has very little affinity for Hϩ: HCl 88n Hϩ ϩ ClϪ and in NaOH solutions, Naϩ has little affinity for OHϪ. The dissociation of these substances in water is effectively complete. Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes Substances with only a slight tendency to dissociate to form ions in solution are called weak electrolytes. 74 ϫ 10Ϫ5 [CH3COOH] The term K a is also called an ionization constant because it states the extent to which a substance forms ions in water.
The hydration of CO2 is actually mediated by an enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, which facilitates the equilibrium by rapidly catalyzing the reaction 88z H2CO3 H2O ϩ CO2(d) y88 Under the conditions of temperature and ionic strength prevailing in mammalian body fluids, the equilibrium for this reaction lies far to the left, such that about 500 CO2 molecules are present in solution for every molecule of H2CO3. Because dissolved CO2 and H2CO3 are in equilibrium, the proper expression for H2CO3 availability is [CO2(d)] ϩ [H2CO3], the so-called total carbonic acid pool, consisting primarily of CO2(d).
Presumably, the first viruses were fragments of nucleic acid that developed the ability to replicate independently of the chromosome and then acquired the necessary genes enabling protection, autonomy, and transfer between cells. 25 Transcription Replication RNA Translation Coat proteins Assembly Release from cell ● The virus life cycle. Viruses are mobile bits of genetic information encapsulated in a protein coat. The genetic material can be either DNA or RNA. Once this genetic material gains entry to its host cell, it takes over the host machinery for macromolecular synthesis and subverts it to the synthesis of viral-specific nucleic acids and proteins.