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Chapter 2 Cellular, molecular, and membrane biology across the membrane until equilibrium is achieved. ) In the case of active transport, substrates are accumulated on one side of the membrane at levels above the equilibrium distribution. The conformational changes by which solutes are moved against their electrochemical gradients are energized by ATP hydrolysis, either directly (primary active transport, for example, the Na+, K+-ATPase) or indirectly, using a gradient established by a primary process (secondary active transport, for example, Na+-glucose cotransport by SGLT).

Glycogenolysis/breakdown Catabolic degradation of glycogen stores relies on the action of three fundamental enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase, debranching enzyme (α-1,6 glucosidase), and Chapter 3 Biochemistry and metabolism fructose1,6-bisphosphatase, while high levels of acetyl CoA (inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase and, therefore, inhibit glycolysis) activate pyruvate carboxylase activating gluconeogenesis. Allosteric and covalent modifications at the 3 key enzyme rate-limiting steps also prevent simultaneous activity in the two cycles.

G. a 6-hr off-road ultra-marathon, but training encourages earlier and more efficient use of alternative energy supplies. Oxidation of fatty acids (see ‘Fatty acid metabolism’) becomes far more important in these situations to preserve limited glycogen stores for obligate glucose utilizing cells. Control of glycolysis There are three rate-limiting steps in glycolysis, regulated by enzymatic control. All these reactions function with large negative free energy conditions. ●● ●● Glycolytic pathway reactions Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of muscle, fat, and tissues that are not capable of producing their own glucose through gluconeogenesis.

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