By Leif Hertz (auth.), Sergey Fedoroff, Bernhard H. J. Juurlink, Ronald Doucette (eds.)
This quantity is made of papers offered on the moment overseas Altschul Symposium: Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions. The symposium used to be held in Saskatoon, Canada on the college of Saskatchewn in may possibly, 1992 in reminiscence of Rudolf Altschul, a graduate of the collage of Prague and a pioneer within the fields of the biology of the vascular and apprehensive structures. Dr. Altschul used to be Professor and Head of the dept of Anatomy on the collage of Saskatchewan from 1955 to 1963. The Altschul Symposia have been made attainable via an endowment left via Anni Altschul and by means of different contributions. The symposia are held biennially. one of many maximum demanding situations for modern-day scientists is to discover the mechanisms of mind functionality. even if mobile anatomy of the fearful method has already been good defined and certainly used to be delineated by way of the start of the century, experimental research of the functionality of the mind is comparatively fresh. The framework of the mind is made from stellate cells, the astrocytes, that are interconnected via their methods, therefore featuring a meshwork wherein the neurons ship their axons, observed by way of oligodendrocytes. Microglia are disbursed through the brain.
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Extra info for Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions
1990a, 1992; Ransom and Philbin, 1992; Philbin, 1992). In addition, while ionic movements across neuronal membranes are assumed to account for a significant proportion of the anoxia-induced changes in interstitial ion concentrations in both WM and GM, the precise cellular source of the fluxes remains unknown (Hansen, 1985). Specifically, despite growing evidence that glial cells help to regulate the brain's ionic environment (Walz, 1989), the influence of glia upon ion shifts during anoxia has been assessed only within the past year (Ransom and Philbin, 1992; Philbin, 1992).
Smith et al. (1983) and Eng et al. (1989) have demonstrated that there are significant changes in the structure of astrocytes, early in the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Similarly, immunocytochemical studies have demonstrated antigenic abnormalities in fiber tract astrocytes in myelin-deficient (md) rats (Friedman et al. 1989). These observations suggest the possibility that pathological changes in perinodal astrocytes may play a role in producing the conduction abnormalities that are seen in demyelinated and dysmyelinated fiber tracts.
1980, Diffusion, patching and capping of stearoylated dextrans on 3T3 cell plasma membranes, Biochemistry 19:3893-3899. 25 ANOXIA-INDUCED EXTRACELLULAR ION SHIFTS IN MAMMALIAN CNS WHITE MATTER Daniel M. Philbin Jr. and Brunce R. Ransom Yale University School of Medicine Department of Neurology 333 Cedar Street, LCI 712 New Haven, CT 06510 INTRODUCTION Anoxia induces rapid changes in the interstitial ionic composition of gray matter (GM) which reflect the metabolic state of local brain tissue and can directly affect neural behavior (Siesjo, 1981).