By Professor Samuel Dales, Professor Beatriz G. T. Pogo (auth.)

This quantity, Biology of Poxviruses, marks our debut as editors of this popular sequence. We plan to proceed the culture of offering a discussion board for exten­ sive, severe reports of person virus teams, as exemplified by means of the current quantity. however the speed of discovery is accelerating so speedily that we believe the necessity to provide an extra layout: volumes that comprise collections of shorter, topical studies on a bunch of comparable matters. Such collections could minimize throughout con­ ventional obstacles among virus teams, dealing, for instance, with a partic­ ular element of virus-cell interplay. Admittedly, this new layout stretches the time period "monograph" past the authorized definition, yet we think that we should always pay that fee to take care of the usefulness of the sequence as a medium of medical conversation. at any time when attainable, we are going to enlist assistance from deputy editors to carry such col­ lections to fruition. As some time past, the editors and the writer will welcome feedback for themes and contributions.

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This latter process is termed viropexis. There is, however, no fundamental difference between the two routes of penetration, since both require fusion between the lipoprotein barriers of the host and virus (Figs. 14A-C). , 1989). , 1976). , 1971). Under some circumstances, progeny virions are released from host cells in an orderly process involving wrapping by Golgi membranes (DALES, 1963). When such virions possessing the extra shroud constitute the inoculum for in vitro st,udies of penetration, it has been reported that penetration is more efficient than 40 IV.

Following solubilization and partial purification on DNA-cellulose and Sephadex gels, two independent ATPase activities become apparent, ATPases I and II, presumed to exist as monomeric units of MW 61 K and 68K, respectively. The ATPases are distinguishable on the basis of their heat lability and inactivation by cupric ions (WEI and Moss, 1974; PAOLETTI and Moss, 1974). , 1974). Although the biological functions of the ATPases have not been elucidated unequivocally, by analogy with other systems these enzymes have possible roles in DNA strand separation, initiation of DNA replication, transcription, extrusion of mRNAs from the core, DNA packing, virion assembly and the nicking-closing activity described above.

Transcription and Translation Unique features in the replication scheme of poxviruses, exemplified by vaccinia virus, which include cytoplasmic DNA replication and involvement of core enzymes, have generated wide interest in these agents as models for in~estigating 46 V. Transcription and Translation phenomena of transcription and translation pertinent to the eukaryotes and their viruses. Such research activities are reflected in numerous publications from which a fairly clear and detailed understanding of RNA and protein syntheses has emerged.

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