By Nicholas P. Money (auth.), Professor Dr. Richard J. Howard, Professor Dr. Neil A. R. Gow (eds.)

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1996). Patches form a ring at the incipient bud site before bud emergence and remain concentrated at the surface of growing buds. As the bud grows larger, the patches become dispersed throughout the cortex. These patches repolarize to the mother-bud neck at cytokinesis. The distribution of actin structures also changes in response to environment. Actin patches are hyperpolarized during filamentous differentiation (Kron et al. 1994; Cali et al. 1998), and become briefly depolarized und er heat shock and osmotic stress (Chowdhury et al.

1997). While sharing components may facilitate co ordination among pathways during complex biological processes, it also raises the problem of specificity. Thus, mechanisms that help coordinate and confer specificity for these MAPK pathways are important for cell growth. In budding S. cerevisiae, the Mpk1, Fus3 and Kss1 MAPK pathways participate in controlling cell polarity in response to external cues and internal status of cell-cycle progression. The Mpk1 pathway participates in polarized growth during vegetative growth, filamentous growth and mating.

The terminal phenotypes include elongated buds, wide mother-bud necks and multiple nuclei, suggesting roles for Cla4 in bud morphogenesis and cytokinesis. Another mutant identified in the same screen is allelic to the septin gene CDC12 (see above); this mutant gives similar phenotypes as above (Cvrckova and Nasmyth 1993), suggesting that Cla4 may have septinrelated functions. Cla4 has significant sequence similarity to Ste20 within the kinase domain and the Cdc42bin ding domain. In addition, Cla4 has a PH domain that is absent in Ste20.

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