By John Falconer, Elizabeth Moore, Luca Invernizzi Tettoni, Alfred Birnbaum

The Burmese culture of structure, artwork and layout is historical, diversified and beautifully wealthy. a mirrored image of a civilization unbreached through eu powers for 3,000 years and inspired by way of China to the north and India to the West, Burmese layout is interwoven with religious, non secular and political messages. it is just now that this practice is coming to be preferred by means of Western scholars of structure and design.Burmese layout and structure will deepen and improve that appreciation, for this can be the 1st publication to trap the full span of Burmese layout, from arts and crafts to structure, from the huge pagodas of Bagan to the architectural historical past of latest Rangoon. protecting either non secular and secular layout, this booklet deals specialist insights supplied by means of best archaeological specialists during this box. With 500 full-color images, this can be a significant work-and essential for severe connoisseurs of structure, layout or Burma itself.

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Further south is the vast Taungthaman Lake, traversed by a massive wooden bridge, over a km long, built from the posts of the earlier palace at Ava. The Kyauktawgyi pagoda (1847) is at the end of this bridge. It is said to have been modelled on the Ananda at Bagan. Mural paintings adorn its east and west interior, providing not only a valuable record of monastic architecture in the 19th century, but examples of a number of earlier pagodas renovated by the king. A number of smaller shrines are found in the wooded area around the Kyauktawgyi.

There are a few notable exceptions, such as the sandstone Nanpaya. Bricks were donated by the surrounding villages, and some were stamped with a village name. When a building was completed, it was coated both inside and out, using a combination of glazing, stuccowork and painting. Some pagodas have traces of a green ceramic glaze, including the 9th-10th century bulbous stupa, the Nga-kywe-na-daung. Terracotta plaques were often used to adorn stupa exteriors, while temples were coated with stucco on the outside and decorated with mural paintings within.

Four massive pillars mark the corners of the plinth. The inner face of each pillar is carved with a graceful figure generally identified as Brahm a with his four faces. Some identify the figures as bodhisattvas or Buddhas-to-be. As the central plinth is thought to have held an image of the Buddha, guardian bodhisattvas rather than Brahmanic deities would give the temple a totally Buddhist attribution. Both identifications must be considered, especially as Brahmanic and Buddhist iconography was often used within the same temple.

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