By J. F. Haldon

This booklet provides the 1st analytical account in English of significant advancements inside Byzantine tradition, society and the country within the an important formative interval from c.610-717. The 7th century observed the ultimate cave in of historical city civilization and municipal tradition, the increase of Islam, the evolution of styles of inspiration and social constitution that made imperial iconoclasm attainable, and the improvement of country apparatuses--military, civil and fiscal--typical of the center Byzantine nation. additionally, in this interval, orthodox Christianity ultimately grew to become the unquestioned dominant tradition and a non secular framework of trust (to the exclusion of different platforms, that have been henceforth marginalized or proscribed).

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Extra resources for Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture (Revised edition)

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P. Haldon, Byzantlne Praetorlans: An Admlnlltratlw, lnstltutlonal and Social Survey of the Opsllclon and Tasmatll, c. 580-900 9 (Polklla Byzantlna Ill Boon 1984), p. 597 and n. 988 (also for raising animals through compulsory levies In the same period). Note also Hendy, Studies, pp. 311. 61G-12. The most accessible general surveys are those of Lllle. Die byzantlnlsche Realctlon. pp. 2 5 Sft'. wlth literature and esp. the statistical chart at pp. 258-62: and Sp. • 'The question of the By~antlne mines'.

Climatic variation within the empire was considerable. The political world of the later Roman state was dominated by three land masses: the Balkans. Asia Minor and the Middle East zone as far east as the Euphrates and as far south as Egypt: by the two seas which both separated and united them. the east Mediterranean and the Aegean, and the Black Sea: and by the geographically. but by no means politically, peripheral areas of Italy and the North African possessions of the empire. Prom the middle of the seventh century lt is Anatolla and the Balkans that dominate, as the remaining territories are progressively lost: and from this time Italy and the Ionian Sea, on the one hand, and the Crimea and its hinterland, on the other, set the outer limits to what was thereafter 'Byzantine'.

Byzantine Military Unrest 471-843: An Inurprellltlon (Amsterdam 1981 ), p. 110. State and society before Heraclius 13 played a significant role. Mules and horses were crucial to the imperial forces at all times. although little is known of the ways in which they were raised, maintained or supplied. Imperial estates in Asia Minor, particularly in the provinces of Phrygla, Lydla, Asia and Cappadocia, were important in the ninth century and after, as well as in the later Roman period. Both types of animal were raised and, in the ninth and tenth centuries at least, for which the evidence is reasonably clear, the regulations governing their issue were complex and strict.

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