By S. Dhein
An important communique mechanism among cardiac cells is electric transmission through low resistance pathways, the so-called hole junction channels. This e-book presents a complete review of what's recognized approximately cardiac hole junctions. An advent into some of the points of activation propagation and coupling within the center is via an in depth description of the constitution and variety of hole junctions, together with amino acid sequences and species variability. next chapters talk about their distribution, body structure and services and the rules of expression. the writer then is going directly to positioned those uncomplicated findings right into a medical context - the adjustments of hole junction distribution during cardiac sickness and their implications. yet another bankruptcy offers pharmacological methods to the modulation of hole junction channel conductivity and descriptions attainable healing thoughts. the ultimate a part of the publication describes the tools of research together with double mobile voltage clamp, immunohistochemistry, isolation approaches for hole junctions and dye coupling assays.
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Extra info for Cardiac Gap Junctions: Physiology, Regulation, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
1994] in the hamster sinoatrial node cells. However, these authors did not double stain the cells with an anti- -smooth muscle actin antibody which is known to specifically stain sinoatrial node cells. Thus, it might be possible that the Cx43-positive cells were obtained from the border zone of the sinoatrial node. , 1995] only after birth. 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 28 Cx40 was found in sinus node cells, atrium, AV node, AV bundle and bundle branches and Purkinje fibers. , 1993a, b, c].
From the above-mentioned considerations an association of the different functions and demands with different types of coupling can be concluded. Thus, in general, Cx40 can be found in the conduction system whereas ventricular myocytes are coupled by Cx43. In this chapter, the distribution of the various connexins within the cardiac tissue will be described. First, the distribution of the gap junction channels within a cell will be outlined. In the foregoing chapter, it was found that the intercalated disks seen on light microscopy contain the gap junction channels.
1993). It can be suggested, that, if adjacent cells express incompatible connexins, this provides a mechanism for the formation of different compartments. 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 34 4 ........................... Function and Physiology of Gap Junction Channels In this chapter insight into the regulation and electrophysiology of gap junctions will be given and the current-voltage relationships for various connexins will be described. In the first part a special focus is on the physiological regulation of gap junctional opening and closure by calcium, sodium, magnesium, cAMP, ATP, pH, pCO2, leukotrienes, catecholamines and acetylcholine.