By E. J. Gallagher

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Extra resources for Cereal Production. Proceedings of the Second International Summer School in Agriculture Held by the Royal Dublin Society in Cooperation with W K Kellogg Foundation

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11. Average yield gains per cycle with different intra-population recurrent selection schemes in corn. From Sprague and Eberhart (1977) Selection method No. of reports No. 12. Estimates of additive genetic variance (g plant ') from six recurrent selection programs for yield improvement in maize in Iowa. From Hallauer (1981) Cycles of selection Co Ci Q c3 c4 c5 cCj6 c8 cAverage 9 (a) Half-sib selection Sj selection ReciprocaiI recurrent selection BS13(i 0 BS12 BSK BSK BSSS BSCB1 338 110 260 493 417 115 420 100 517 997 168 341 79 94 147 260 464 454 232 255 208 259 121 211 389 255 349 291 102 110 52 346 409 352 546 443 74 178 150 289 863 545 - 89 270 239 258 351 218 299 - 437 S2 recurrent selection conducted for the last three cycles.

It is interesting to note that many of the more exotic approaches to cereal plant improvement have had little success. There is little evidence that breeders have improved the photosynthetic capacity of individual leaves and there has been little improvement, due to breeding, for a more erect leaf habit (except in the case of rice). Many workers have looked at the low photorespiration and high water use efficiency of C4 species and breeders have sought to either find C4 types in C3 species or transfer intact C4 systems into C3 species.

2). 3). However, two other substitutes (maize gluten feed and citrus peels) have taken the lead if we consider the increase expressed as a percentage. 9 x 106 tonnes in 1981 or, in percentage terms, an increase of more than 400%· Citrus peels present an even more significant development. 4 x 106 tonnes) or an increase of 530%. The maize gluten feed is mainly imported from the USA (more than 90%) and the market for citrus peels is shared equally between the USA and Brazil. Of the more important substitutes, the remaining two dealt with are brans and maize germ cake which have shown similar increases in importation during the 1970s.

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